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  • An antioxidant is any substance that protects the body from free radical damage. There are natural antioxidants produced in the body to counter these free radicals, but antioxidant food supplements can also be administered to neutralize their damaging effects.

  • Having been supplied with cream, lotion or ointment to apply, there is then the problem of how to apply it! Even the most biddable dog can object violently to applications on a sensitive area.

  • This ear preparation has been supplied in order to assist in treating your pet's ear complaint. The condition is not uncommon and as mentioned there are a number of possible causes.

  • Your veterinarian will have discussed the frequency and application of the eye medication prescribed but it may be useful to have these notes as an aide mémoire.

  • Arthritis is a complex condition involving inflammation of joints. There are many causes but in general the degree of arthritis is directly related to the age of the animal.

  • Natural pheromones are 'social odours' that are secreted by your pet. The smells are perceived by animals and communicate a message. Artificial pheromones are used to modify behaviour and should only be used in combination with behavioural modification techniques.

  • Artificial tears are tear substitutes used to moisten and lubricate the eyes when the animal's tear secretion has stopped or is reduced as in keratoconjunctivitis sicca (dry eye syndrome).

  • Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used to treat mild to moderate pain, to reduce inflammation and to reduce fever.

  • Atopy was once thought to be caused by an inhaled allergen to which the dog's immune system over reacts. However, although the cause of atopy is still unknown, it is most likely due to contact of the allergic particles directly on the skin.

  • Atropine eye drops are used to keep your pet's pupil open when there is inflammation within the eye. Atropine relieves muscle spasm and therefore pain in the eye.